Creative Elements


Creative Elements aims to introduce diverse backgrounds to a range of concepts and skills required to gain an understanding of the universal principles surrounding both interactivity and animation. The aims of this module are to introduce core themes, such as: visualization, time-based media, audio, interactivity and divergent thinking. fundamental techniques, processes and technology through intensive workshop practice. promote innovative thinking and idea generation. encourage the creation of assets required to meet the outcomes from innovative thinking. creative environment that supports an understanding of core themes relating to interactivity and animation through reflection, group work and peer-assessment.    
My Team and I, were given a task to produce a poster and graphic design, in a ratio of 4.1 – 2.1; based on the research we found within Design Discourse One and Two. The first thing we did was to read over the module’s description and discuss “What it means?”.
We then began to research ideas we could incorporate into the design of the poster and graphic. This research would relate to key elements within that course module structure, and what it means to study this module. Here are some of these images and idea processes, we had: We began by bringing up all the key words found within the module description; and pinning them up on the window, just like we had done for the previous week’s project. We had originally decided to produce a .gif for our poster design, but, we later found out that the site may not hold a .gif document.
Above, is a storyboard idea that I created for the .gif. I took the same ideas mentioned by the team; which was an idea involving blending of images showing the key elements of Design Discourse One and Two.
The Idea for this story board was simple: each image would flick to the next frame, and there would be slight indications of animation (between each one), to narrate the meaning of the key words found in Design Discourse One and Two. One idea I suggested was to bring an illustrative approach to the piece; I produced some works I felt express this style, but once we looked over them, we decided the images were too dominant in the piece, and didn’t really present a clear view of the module’s key elements. What we then decided was to bring a narrative to the poster, that would attract the audience/viewer in a way that would trick them into looking at the whole piece, in a rotated fashion. We aimed to do this by blending images on Photoshop, in a mask layer, and to collect images of the class environment around us.
Above are some concepts I created; my inspiration for these came from one of my team members. She had produced this wonderfully textured looking image that was blended in a mask layer. Its texture was the typography and a brush swish effect, (subtly disguised behind) which she had drawn out over the top of the images in mask layer; and therefore, it appeared/felt like a projector was projecting the images. The words also had the colours from the images behind, coming through. (Scroll down and you will see this image below.)
Above are some more concepts that I feel have certain aspects to an Illustrative approach. I wanted to experiment with typography, and when I brought these ideas to the team we decided that the typography was over crowding the main focus point of the poster, and that the illustrative style could be used through photography that would describe the modules’ overall themes. Our aim from that point on, was to narrow those concepts down to four finalized designs, for the poster.
These were some of the team’s final poster designs for this project. They provided a good basis for how we wanted to present our finalized ideas. They were good designs, and had a related quality to design that we were trying to achieve; however we decided not to use them, because the images had nothing that related to the course module or said anything that related to it. Though in our feed back, from our tutor, we were shocked to realize that he preferred these earlier ideas. So, our aim now is to refine this idea, but, this time to use a single image that represents the course module. Looking back, we realized that simplicity works best; when in doubt, think of the least expected.
These were some later entries of the poster designs; they were really simple and brilliantly illustrated the course structure, in great detail.
These were the team’s finalized poster designs that we presented to the class. The problem with these posters was, that they weren’t simple enough. Our tutor loves simplistic ideas, because they work the best, when creating a poster or any other type of design. Design is always based around simplistic ideas, because they work.
These were the finalized graphics that we presented, they work in a rotated fashion; it is a simple trick that one of our team members guested and we liked, so went for it. It works really well; the idea is that the images are placed in a way that directs the viewer’s eye to look at the whole image. That is pure genius; it really does work well.
The team worked on other variations of that same idea of directing the viewer’s eye; we played about with the positioning of the image within the graphic. Then one other team member started positioning the images slanted, something the rest of us hadn’t thought about; so, we started taking that spark of an idea into consideration. There is something appealing about when we designed the images to be slanted that just stuck to the end product.
This is a presentation/ example of what the graphic will look like on the course website.


Our next project was to create a world; this world could be anything at all. There were endless possibilities which we had suggested. One idea was to create a bum world and the people that lived within that world were “bums” (metaphorically speaking); the people would be a kind of race of being who were “wasters”, and unaccomplished; (and there were also some actual human bums within the world as well, just to make it somewhat comical). Another idea was to create a vice-versa scenario, where clothes shop for people and fish (go fishing) for humans, weird but, humorous. We were throwing in some pretty good ideas and possibilities, for the world.
Then we started questioning some more intelligent ideas. Sci-fi/fantasy was the root that we finally decided upon, because there was a more logical explanation for it, and it just grew from one member and another suggested possible elements that would work within this kind of world we were imagining. We suggested the idea of a “world within a world”, a hidden world, that was there but no one could find. With this as the basis/the seed or core element of our world, we began looking at mythology and the world around us. One side of inspiration, was the ocean; this was something I suggested to the team because I have always been interested in underwater life, and it was the prime example of what a hidden world was. The ocean is a vast unknown world, that varies from our own common existence. I went to the library and found a fantastic book called Art Forms in Nature, by Ernst Haeckel. This is a fabulous book with amazing and interesting underwater fauna and flora; when I found this book I brought it to the team and they loved it. Some great ideas and inspirations began to develop.
One Idea was that the underwater world would have tunnels; this idea came from a previous idea of a world with tunnels, that linked with dwarfs in mythology. Then we had another idea that involved a sacred ritual/ spiritual belief from that world; it was a gas that came up from the cracks of the sea bed and consumed the life force of the beings. The creature believed this gas to be a kind of entity/ god-like religious belief to these beings.
Below are some of the concept designs I produced for the world and the creatures/beings that live within the world.
This concept was for the overall appearance of these beings that would live in this world; I took inspiration from what the team had decided on and other concepts that had been produced. This was the first of the actual structure of the beings’ form and shape. The head was inspired by what we had suggested, and the concepts I had seen from another member; so, I took their ideas into consideration for this piece. My biggest inspiration for the design of the creature’s structure came from a documentary I had watched a while ago; but, I have forgotten what it was called, though I do remember that it was an explanation, or investigation/ theory of how, if humans were to be like fish or birds, what certain shapes and forms we would have to have. Our physical appearance would be far different, if for instance we were to live underwater, most of our muscle structure would be found in our legs and arms; we would have to have a lean swimmer body, for agility to be able to change direction in water. Mainly the most power would come from our legs, which would be flipper shaped, for speed and agility. The same principles would be for if humans could fly; however, our chests would be huge and masculine, our lungs would have to be big enough to hold in helium to allow us to make flight, just as birds do. Our bones would be light, and our power would come from our wings/arms. Knowing about these theories, taken from what I had watched/heard on that documentary, I wanted the beings to have a logical and believable structure and form.
This was a concept design for the look of the world underwater; we researched a lot of undersea flora; and thought: what the buildings would be? what would these creatures build with?
For the creature we looked at lots of fish and marine mammals to get an idea of how they would look. The next problem we faced was what these creatures would wear. We came across a book called Art Forms In Nature, by Ernst Haeckel. This began our inspiration for the armour that the creatures would wear. In this book were loads of references to underwater cells and plankton etc; it was full of wonderful sketches of flora that were found under the sea. These ideas and shapes were perfect influence for the buildings and armour. We also looked at samurai warrior armour as a basis for ideas of what kind of style our creatures’ armour would have. For the creatures themselves we referenced from the structure of a giraffe’s (as well as fish and marine mammal anatomy) neck and face; it provided an understanding of their anatomy and helped to draw their faces in different poses. The giraffe also played a part in the influence of the marks on the creatures and the colour of their skin.

CREATE A WORLD PART 2: New Team and World project  

With the new project my new team and I faced a difficult problem; we were given a world with a very strange appearance and design, it was a galaxy based on a water drop and reflection in the ripples; the idea was that this was a world with a parallel world, and that every time it passed through a horizon point it was destroyed and the world reproduced itself all over again. This would happen at the end of every cycle. There was also the idea of two suns, one fire the other ice, this is where it got a bit confusing for us. We first got the impression that the world rotated around and once it went through one of the suns they would be destroyed, only to come out of the other side to begin the cycle of evolution again. We asked the previous team about their idea and were told it was the horizon point that would destroy the world, and once it passed through it would then go back to evolution/ reproduce its world again. It was very confusing to start off with, and we tossed and turned over our ideas to build on it, till we all finally decided to go a different route for the design of the world; but, to keep to the spirit of the initial idea. We kept the idea of two suns; one would be a red dwarf sun and the other a normal sun; we then looked at a piece of animation that a team member had suggested and this gave us our inspiration to turn the world into a world made entirely of metal; that the creature would build and build and that there came a time in life when the building got too much and the world would collapse and be sucked into a ray of white light. With this we had another idea that we added to it, that there was one creature that had a timer and would know exactly when the world would end, so he would freeze time/ slow time, and had a limited amount of time to save the world. These events were a constant loop and would happen again and again, hence the idea of the previous team that was reproducing/redeveloping of the world. Our idea is that even though this reoccurs a lot, there is one day that this creature is destined not to save that world. This came from an idea another team member suggested about the Aztecs/Mayan Calender; there is a certain date when the world will come to an end.  
For our idea we researched a lot of artists/ digital artists’ works; we found some interesting ideas that helped us to develop our own concepts for this project. We even found some interesting pieces of models and this influenced our ideas for how the creatures would look. Our idea is that the creatures are made of metal and have flesh; or, they are creatures that wear armour/ are controlled by robot armour. The armour would be made by the same metal as the planet.
These were some references we took of demolished buildings. They provided the basis of inspiration for the concepts of our world; we had talked about building/ demolishing as the time is frozen or in slow motion. We imagined this one creature as a time keeper travelling through many obstacles, to reach his goal.
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With the tonal concepts the team and I wanted to capture the sense of the frozen in time setting we had placed our character in. We played a lot with grey tones, considering the contrast of light and dark tones. Our world began in an apocalyptic/Armageddon, it was the struggle of this lone cyborg that was to venture into this vast destructive world, that had been frozen in time. The problem was how would we capture this sense of motion, how could we create scenes that would represent our idea? We managed to think of ideas of pieces of building scattered about the sky, and our hero skipping along them as though he were building a path for himself to get past obstacles, as he ventured to the core of the problem with the world. What we also had to think about was perspectives within this world, how would the inhabitants of the world fit within their environment and adapt to its climate, seasons, vegetation etc. What would their living conditions be within the world and how would they survive any obstacles? With our metal world the team really knew that the world would be heavy; we picked one of the world’s strongest metals as reference, Osmium; this would explain how the metal world would eventually collapse in its Apocalypse, etc.  If we were to have two suns within our world, which did come up in conversation, and two moons, these two elements would therefore change the tides of that world sea and the shadows would alter.
icefirecreatures ice-world ice-world-concept-2 metalic-world-caves-colour-test1 tomb-colour-scene world-action-concept world-destruction world-entity-colour-action-scenes-2 world-pieces
Before we changed the world to a metal world, the previous team had an idea that had a world that was divided into ice and fire; we had to change this theme as it had already been taken by another team. The designs I had made for the fire and ice world I eventually used for ideas in my metal world, shapes etc.
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Our final task for this project was to use colour and composition; we found a book calledComposition, by J.M. Paramon, this explained everything about composition and how light and colour help to establish a mood. We were also advised to research Joseph William Turner (The Painter of Light) and watch a presentation video called Gnomon Master Class, Efficient Cinematic Lighting, Jeremy Vickery. In our world we knew reflection would become a key element to our world, as metal cannot be called so, if it does not have a reflection, mirroring its surroundings.  A team member found a helpful little tutorial about how to paint metal surfaces.
This explained a lot about building  the colour and the purpose to define the shape of a metal object; this method was an interesting way to make the work become more believable and have the images of metal pop-out. However, it still became a challenge that we all found difficult. It wasn’t easy to paint an object that only had grey color tones, we had to find a way of creating mood through light and other colours we all felt established the mood of tension and isolation;  purple is such a dramatic colour in that it seems to strike as menacing or tension, blue establishes more cold and isolated; so by using these colours we managed to capture a mood for our hero’s surrounding, that the viewer could identify.
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Eyvind Earle was an interesting artist whom I researched through the development of my work; he became a great influence in my style, and used similar colours to what the team and I were discussing for our concepts. Eyvind Earle is noted for his concept art and creating the style of Disney animated movies. He uses a lot of Low and High key color contrasts, to establish the scene he is trying to present to the viewer. Joseph William Turner was another artist that I referred to for influencing my ideas for colour and composition. This artist understood light very well, and I have chosen two pieces that have become my favourite pieces of his works. He was a crazy influential guy who painted mainly landscape, using watercolour and oil; known as the “painter of light”, because he mastered in the art of painting light.


From the previous team’s concepts for the Create A World project we brought the two together and thought about what kind of a story these concepts were trying to show. We came to the conclusion that this was a voyage to the centre of the sea story. Quite likeJourney to the Center of the Earth, The Seven Voyages of SinbadHomer’s Odyssey2,000 Leagues Under the Sea and Atlantis. We also talked about Star Wars, because one of the concepts suggested this idea, for one creature to eat a ship and a bigger creature to eat the first one. We even looked to cinematography as inspiration for our story and concepts. Alfred Hitchcock, North By Northwest
For one of the scenes, North by Northwest provided a good basis as to how to lay out our idea, where the creature chases the ship. Star Wars
This video provided inspiration for one of our scenes in our story. We expanded on it, so that one creature tries to eat the ship and another larger one comes along to eat that creature. For the creature’s design we looked to cinema dragons for inspiration. What we wanted to create was a caricatured style for our concepts, as though they would develop into an animated movie or game.
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These were the various stages to create the concept of a scene in the story that we had all discussed; the idea was based upon Star Wars, where one creature tries to eat the ship and is eaten by another bigger creature.
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Our inspiration for the style of the Create A  World came from Nico Marlet, concept designer for How to Train Your Dragon.
Another concept artist who inspired the creature design was Kei Acedera, Art Director. What sprung to mind was the idea of coral for the creature’s horns, and that it blended in with its environment.
1376009_10200831810257717_1227372921_n I found this image of some under water creature that I thought looked interesting for the idea of the creature design.  This image reminded me of Kei Acedera’s concepts as seen above. I also looked to the snapping turtle as inspiration for the creature’s skin texture; I also felt that the snapping turtle reminded me of a dragon, and looked interesting and menacing.
This book provided the perfect means of understanding cinematography; our aim for this project was to create concept art with a cinematic effect/style. We had been asked to think of composition and colour, but, also how it would play in with the story. We had to imagine moments within the story; and then visualize how the scene for that story would appear on screen. So we had to think about the camera angles and position of our characters within the scene. THE STORY – Our story is set in a world under the sea, it is a story about a father and his ill daughter, who is going to die unless he can take a journey to find a cure. He take an expedition under the sea, and is chased by a creature deeper into a pit, where he is lost for days, and as his oxygen is getting lower, he begins to hallucinate about his daughter; the hallucination guides him safely back to safety. We think that the cure is located in the belly of the creature, or that the creature guards the cure like a dragon guards its treasure.
monster-chase sea-monsters stage-1 stage-2 stage-3
Plan out of some colour and scenes. The colours we chose for our concepts were murky and shadowy, light plays an important role in our story as the creatures and the ship provide the light source for the dark and dank underwater world. Blues , greens and hints of  purple were the colours we chose; also for the scene in which the father hallucinates about his daughter, we wanted to use bright colours to suggest a mirage; this scene is very dark and so, yellows, white and golden colours were used to establish the scene. Our underwater world was to be a dark and murky place to live, the creatures had to blend within their environment as the predators stalking their prey. The only light would come through their eyes, and for one creature a pouch on its belly provided a light source. The ship in which the father is cruising needed to have light to be able to find its way through the darkened world.

CREATE A WORLD: PART 4 Jellyfish World: Features a spaceship Jellyfish World, that wanders the oceans.

The team and I wanted to take this idea and expand on it further we had to create a story for the world as they was hardly any evidence of one from the previous teams. Our aim for this project was to create a 90 sec animatic which would include 200 drawings and storyboard post it notes. Our goal for the project is to focus on time, if we use music, sound effects or analog within this animatic it therefore must follow a precise time; keeping a flow within the story of the animatic. My team were greatly influenced by the Bravest Warriors and Adventure Time shows for our animatic; we therefore sought to interpret a similar style to our animatic that resembled those shows.
The Saga of Rex was a big influence in the development of the story; it provided us with our idea of using animals and the Evil Overlord, we had originally decided to have the Evil Overlord capturing animals to experiment on. We later decided to add heroes, known as the Eco Warriors, who save the animals. The story then developed to be that the Evil Overlord captured us to experiment with, and gave us our super powers. We wanted to create a story that was comical, and we also decided to take the idea away from underwater worlds and set in within the ship itself. Story Summary: Just a little extension to the story and an introduction to the human female aboard the Aliens Eco Crew ship. Meanwhile another craft descended onto the planet and quietly moved towards the large bulbous bell of the ship, which was collecting the creatures from the planets surface. Inside this ship sat six humanoids and an animal of some sort. A young human girl, Moonchild Flowers, was busy lacing up her black military style boots with daisies painted on them while her fellow eco warriors adjusted their weapons. Their current leader, Actaeon, was a large creature with black quills covering his head and spine. His square jaw also had some of these quills scattered over it but he tended to trim them. Actaeon was busy charging his plasma stunner while he waited for his team. They had formulated a plan the previous night where by they could infiltrate the Over Lords ship and rescue some of the innocent creatures he was collecting for himself. This plan relied on Moonchild being able to subtly infiltrate the ship with out any of the minions becoming aware of her presence. All of the crew were beginning to doubt the reliability of this plan as Moonchild sang under her breath, “The bunny goes around the tree, through the hole, then pops out the other side beautiful and bold.” The Only other female aboard the ship was a small furry creature with long white hair and a black tufted tail. Her legs were somewhat short and her knuckles touched the ground to help keep her balanced. Her name was Magnild and she alone would be accompanying Moonchild aboard the Overlords craft. She glared at the human from underneath her fringe, she was unhappy about having to look after the girl but then the girl was useful in other areas and had to be protected, unfortunately Magnild was simply the one best suited to act as body guard.  (above is a story summary written by a team member) The idea for the story was based around the team as characters within it, being experimented by a Evil Overlord Scientist and his pet sea pig named Gertrude. Once he has changed us into half animal humans with super powers, he soon pursue us to take them back. The characters (the team) want a cure and venture back to the Evil Overlord to get the cure; once there they discover his plans to take their powers for his own and they soon get into a fight. After the fight they escape and decide to keep their powers to use for the forces of justice. Hence they become the Eco Warriors. We came to a conclusion that the story was taking far too long to explain, and with a time limit of 90 secs, we really needed to shorten down some of the events that occur in the story. What we agreed on creating for our animatic was a 90 sec opening sequence as though this was an animatic for a pilot tv show. These were some early concepts and ideas for the world.
In the story the heroes come across a earlier abandoned experiment of the Evil Overlord. They soon take this creature as a pet, and call him Yukky. Yukky is a rubbish, smelly creature; he can stretch his body and stick to anything; he also can eat things ten times his sizes.
We decided to base the characters of our story upon ourselves; this way we knew each others characteristic and personalities; and it therefore became easier to create the characters and understand them better.
These were reference photos we took for the animatic. They provided as good reference for the action poses we wanted to interpret for scene in our animatic.

Create A World Part 4 (continued):

My team and I had to redo our first animatic as it turned out to be ineffective, to what we had initially planned to create. However we were determined to go back and make the necessary changes that required the animatic to succeed in our goal. Our first step took us back to the “drawing board”, we started by looking over the storyboard again and figuring out what changes would need to be made; we came to some agreements about some character changes. Our tutor had sat down with the team and analysed the animatic step-by-step with us, and gave us great advice that helped point us toward a better direction. There was a point he had made about the characters not performing as they should; the team of heroes did not appear as though they were on the same side, as too many shots exposed them as being separated from one another. The Evil Overlord character in the story, our tutor explained, could have had a more efficient part in the story, the audience would want to know what his intentions were on capturing these characters and experimenting with them. Then there was the dog creature character that randomly popped out of nowhere within the story; where did he come from and what was his purpose within the story plot. However, our tutor did also remake that this could have been a very humorous animatic, the characters were appealing and the backgrounds were very well thought out and had an appealing design; the only thing he felt missing or lacking was a better process on developing the characters and the story plot. We also had within the animatic at the very end a heading that read “To Be Continued…” which our tutor felt was a cheat in a way, and felt we could have produced a better alternative ending to the story. Beauty and the Beast and Toy Story have something important in common that I think is essential to Disney Pixar’s continued success.  Both films were, at first, complete failures. Not the films themselves; but the storyboards for these films were so unsuccessful in the pitching stage that they had to go back to the drawing board and redo the entire story all over. The failure of our own animatic reminded me of these two movies once having the same problem as we now faced; and, my team and myself were determined to give our second shot our utmost effort, to produce a better animatic. We began by rethinking the story plot, keeping to the same initial idea, but, improving minor details. The Alchemy of Animation (Hahn) quotes: The typical sequence goes through a lot (and I mean a lot) of corrections, redraws, rethinks, throw-outs, and re-dos until the scene works perfectly for the director. All this will change again when the work gets edited into a “story reel” with dialogue and effects. We re-referenced our research of the animatics we had been influenced by, and saw what we needed was more drawing and strong character development and more involvement of the villain. What we needed to do next was to figure out what worked within the story and what did not. This we decided was the character of the dog-like creature, because we had no real idea of what we could do to introduce a new character, so we had to cut him out of the animatic; (but, his idea still lives on in a possible second episode of the animatic, because we thought of it as a series kind of story, shown on kids T.V. shows). Our reasons being, with the limited amount of time we had for the animatic we wanted to keep things short and to really have the viewer focus more on the story rather than confuse them with character sub-plots. By doing this, we introduced an earlier character which was meant to be involved in the story, but, changed her plot to seek a better solution to our problem with the villain’s character plot.

Moving Onward and Upward

The story progressed in a far better way than previously; we even began to start recording dialogue for the characters; this was a plan we had had originally for the first animatic, however, time was running short and we did not get round to it at that time; but, this time we were adamant that we had to use dialogue into the animatic, as we all agreed it would improve enjoyment in the entertainment. With the character that we brought into the story we decided to give the villain a happy ending, but, one that would not change his character, rather keep him practically the same evil but humorous oddball with a master plan. When he finds the sea pig creature and falls in love with her at the end, his intention is still driven toward evil. Though we do not show this as it is the end of the animatic; we still left the suggestion of “what happens next?” with these two characters. With the remake of our animatic we added new music to create a comical and fun atmosphere within it; by the use of music I feel that our animatic improved greatly and created a lighter and more comical experience for our audience. We also used sound effects to help with the understanding of what actions were portrayed on the screen; when one character kicked a minion or punched a minion we imputed a sound effect that was a slight bang or thud; this gave the illusion that the minion was hit. Sound effects helped with the visuals of the story for the audience to understand what was going on within a particular scene; and it was fun to play around with the sounds within the animatic. This project/experience of creating an animatic has opened my mind to how the thinking process of a story in animation works. I understand now that not every story will get it right the first time round, and that it takes hard work, determination and a loyally devoted team to achieve results; which is exactly what I feel my team and I have managed to achieve with our finalized animatic.
Typography Project Aim: To understand typography – context, usage and clarity. Design text language for communication used in your world. Investigate: tangible symbols of communication. What is Typography? Why is Typography so important? Who benefits from Typography? Research/Reference: v  Language for the disabled v  Sensory software v  ARCE centre v  Sign language for the deaf v v  Erik Spiekermann  (Typomania) v  Ted Talks/YouTube v v v v  J.R.R.Tolkien Elven Language v  Indiania Jones v  Avatar v  Research movies which use language Context?

  • Who is mean to understand it?
  • What format will be used, symbols or type?
  • Usage – Is its functionality informed by your world?
  • Clarity – Does it work?

Resource/ information found on Creative Bloq What is Typography? Learn the basic rules and terms of type! Typography is, quite simply, the art and technique of arranging type. It’s central to the work and skills of a designer and is much more than making the words legible. Your choice of typeface and how you make it work with your layout, grid, colour scheme, design theme and so on will make the difference between a good, bad and great design. Good typography is partly down to creative intuition, but it’s impossible to become skilled in typography without understanding the basic rules of the craft – even if you mean to break them.

  1. Size – All typefaces are not created equally. Some are fat and wide; some are thin and narrow. So words set in different typefaces can take up a very different amount of space on the page. The height of each character is known as its ‘x-height’(quite simply because it’s based on the letter ‘x’). It’s generally wise to use those that share similar x-height. The most common method used to measure type is the point system, which dates back to the eighteenth century. One point is 1/72 inch. 12 points make one pica, a unit used to measure column widths. Type sizes can also be measured in inches, millimetres, or pixels.
  2. Leading – leading describes the vertical space between each line of type. It’s called this because strips of lead were originally used to separate line type in the days of metal type setting. For legible body text that’s comfortable to read, a general rule is that your leading value should be greater than the font size; anywhere from 1.25 to 1.5 times.
  3. Tracking and kerning – kerning describes that act of adjusting the space between characters to create a harmonious pairing. For example, where an uppercase ‘A’ meets an uppercase ‘V’, their diagonal strokes are usually kerned so that the top left of the ‘V’ sits above the bottom right of the ‘A’. Kerning is similar to, but not the same as ‘tracking’; this relates to the spacing of all the characters and is applied evenly.
  4. Measure – The term ‘measure’ describes the width of a text block.
  5. Hierarchy and scale – If all type was the same size, then it would be difficult to know which was the most important information on the page. In order to guide the reader, then, headings are usually large, sub-headings are smaller, and body type is smaller still. Size is not the only way to define hierarchy – it can also be achieved with colour, spacing and weight.

Aesc (phonetic: ash) – A ligature of two letters – ‘a’ and ‘e’. The asec derives from Old English, where it represented a diphthong vowel, and has successfully migrated to other alphabets including Danish and Icelandic. Aperture – The constricted opening of a glyph, as seen in the letter ‘e’. Varying the size of the aperture has a direct effect on the legibility of a letter form and, ultimately, readability. Apex – the point at the top of a character where the left and right strokes meet. Arm- A horizontal stroke that does not connect to a stroke or stem at  one or both ends – such as the top of the capital T. Ascender – the part of a lower case letterform that projects above the x-height and not enough x-height can cause problems. Baseline – the baseline is where the feet of your capital letters sit. Below this line are descenders and loops. Bowl – The shapely, enclosed parts of letters such as ‘p’ and ‘b’. Beak – The Beak – shaped terminal at the top of letters such as ‘a’, ‘c’, ‘f’ and ‘r’. Bicameral (as opposed to unicameral) – Bicameral refers to alphabets that have upper and lower case letterforms, such as Roman and Cyrillic – as opposed to the likes of Hebrew and Arabic. Bracket – A wedge – like shape that joins a Serif to the stem of a font in some typefaces. Cap Height – the height of a capital letter above the baseline. Copy fitting – the job of adjusting point size and letter spacing in a bid to make text occupy its allotted space in a harmonious fashion. Counter – the enclosed – or partially enclosed – portion of letterforms, such as ‘c’, the lower part of ‘e’ and ‘g’; easy to get mixed up with the bowl. Crossbar – The crossbar connects two strokes that cut through the stem of letterforms such as ‘t’. Serif – a flare or, terminating flourish at the end of a letterform’s strokes, believed to originate from Roman tendency to paint letters onto marble before chiselling them out. Sans Serif – a category of typefaces that do not use Serifs, small lines at the ends of characters. Typeface – a particular design of type. What is Writing? Writing is a method of representing language in visual or tactile form. Writing systems use sets of symbols to represent the sounds of speech, and may also have symbols for such things as punctuation and numerals.

  • It must have communication as its purpose
  • It must consist of artificial graphic marks on a durable or electronic surface;
  • It must use marks that relate conventionally to articulate speech (the systematic or electronic programming in such a way that communication is achieved.

Languages of the word: Japanese Finnish Latin Arabic Hebrew Aramaic Fictional Language Avatar – J R R Tolkien Stems – vertical and horizontal strokes can have a slight ductus, a subtle reduction of weight towards the middle of the stroke. This is to make the stroke a bit sharper, and reduce some of the weight. Parameters – 1. A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operations. 2. A limit or boundary which defines the scope of a particular process or activity. Erik Spiekermann  is a German typographer and designer. He is a Professor at the University of the Arts Bremen. Spiekermann studied art history at Berlin’s Free University, funding himself by running a letter press in the basement of his house.


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These were are main source of inspiration for the magazine design; we wanted something that was colourful, simple and was eye-catching/appealing to our target audience. We wanted the cover for the magazine to sell to the audience, a action pack and cool comic book; it had to be something they would want, something that would be cool. We wanted it to be interesting visually; we want to design it for readers, who would not want to put it down.

Magazine Development Fontasizing

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Firstly I began sketching down some ideas for the font I wanted to create for the title/logo. I wanted a strong and bold look, that came across as both warning and Eco friendly. The circle boarder takes inspiration from the Eco friendly logo. Therefore, green was to be my dominant colour for the boarder as the colour green, suggest the sign of good and has a sense of justice about it; it is the kind of colour that best suits within a hero genre, because of it good fib/meaning.

I then researched some font designs that I thought were perfect examples for what I wanted to achieve for the logo’s font design. I really liked a font I found on Dafont; it was called Warrior Nation, it was as though it was faded for the design, (hence the name of the font); I decided that was the font I wanted, however, the selection of the font had the idea I wanted for a font design, but, they were not quite to the standard I wanted. I downloaded the font, and began designing my version of it. I layered the fonts options on top of one another, and change the original colour display, and rearranged the angle to fit the circle boarder; the way I had envisioned as I was working with the design.

The Team also asked me to create the fonts for the names of the characters for the characters’ card designs.

This was the finial design for the title/logo of our product, I presented this to my team members who liked the idea and choice of font. For our card product we need, I thought, a subtitle that would separate it from our animation inspired tv show the Eco Warriors; I wanted a word that would relate to Eco friendly, so, I researched the thesaurus of the word on Google and found; Biohazard, this was a perfect.

Magazine Designs

This was the cover design for the magazine article; I wanted something that would catch children’s eye, and be interestingly appealing visually.

magazine article magazine article2 magazine article3

Above are some page layout designs for the magazine, I attempted many different stages for the layout of the page design; I knew in my head and from the references of magazines found: what I wanted to create/achieve with this design. It had to in my opinion have to appeal both informative and attract the attention of a reader, the final design I think was the best, because it has bright colours and to a young audience would be eye-catching and attract attention. Product Packaging/Advertising design

eco warriors poster magazine packaging magazine packaging2

Interactivity Project

Aim: Is to create an interactive merchandise for our world. What is it? Intellectual Property, someone’s/company’s idea, something someone has the rights to. Example – Star Wars, Batman and Super Mario etc. It is rights – legal rights that name a particular company ownership of the merchandise or product they have created. By Law it protects the original creator as ownership to the idea. Can Be…. Merchandise Movies Games T.V Theme Parks / Theme park rides For this project we were asked to look at our world and see how we could make it interactive. Can be any form of interactive idea. Base it upon technology that exists. Think of audience it is for. For Thursday 12th December, we were asked to present our ideas for the project of interactivity. We are to create a single slide presentation as a group, 2mins long. Questions we must answer: What is it? What does it do? Who is it for? My team and I began discussing ideas for a possible interactive product/merchandise of our world; we thought of the idea of incorporating both the Typography project and Interactive project. This seemed to be an acceptable idea because our tutors said we could if we wanted to. Our ideas were some sort of interactive storybook, that readers would be able to play along with the story, pushing or swiping the screen; within the interactive storybook we thought it would be nice to have a series of questions that readers would have to answer to see what their animal form would be, as our world involved the characters being experimented on and turned into animals. We also began to discuss games we had played as kids; some of these were… Mickey Mouse Castle of Illusion, Supermario, Rayman Crash Bandicoot etc. This led our ideas to thinking about Level Gaming or escape games. We now plan to research: How to design an interactive game? How to design a product game? Research Game Concept artists? Research sound effects/soundtracks for games.


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Development of Interactive Product

We finally decided that computer game based products were an obvious theme for this assignment. We decided to go for a different route, in Trading Card merchandising. We also had an idea to combine our Typography project with our Interactivity Project; we decided to create a magazine for the trading cards, and design an internet web page. The magazine would feature news feeds, and development updates with the brand of the Eco Warriors’ trading cards, and the rules of how to play the game, would be found in the instruction page. The webpage would be a step further with the magazine, it would be a place where players can interact with other players, in a multi-verse gaming experience. Players can get in contact both by the magazine or online, they can give feedback of new trading cards and also make suggestions for future development on the game; e.g. players can draw on a layout page (found in the magazine) for their own card design and post to the company; these design will then be developed and printed in the new issues. Our estimate target audience is primary school kids.


Trading card games reference AT-01 - Copy

Website design references

We also began thinking/talking about how we would display our product to our target audience; we thought about packaging design and advertising.

Character Cards Design

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Card Layout



Children Card Designs


This Character card was an idea we had for the magazine and website, it involved children drawing their own character cards and sending them into the company, and they would make their designs into a card, that would then be put into the next card issue. The children could also win prizes for the best character card and most imaginative character.    

Card Package design
poster eco warriors 2 eco warriors poster
Website Design
Children design own cards pages
Interactive World Game A friend invited me to play a game called Dragon City; I was so inspired by this game that I made design one for the team. In our version the gamer collects animals and the gamer can battle these animals against the minions of Lord Evil. Lord Evil will even steal any of the animals that the gamer owns; to use for his experiment with, thus creating more minions.
Dragon-City-Gem-Hack-Permanent Eco Warriors World Game

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