Aim: To understand typography – context, usage and clarity. Design text language for communication used in your world. Investigate: tangible symbols of communication.
What is Typography?
Why is Typography so important?
Who benefits from Typography?
v Language for the disabled
v Sensory software
v ARCE centre
v Sign language for the deaf
v Erik Spiekermann (Typomania)
v Ted Talks/YouTube
v J.R.R.Tolkien Elven Language
v Indiania Jones
v Research movies which use language
- Who is mean to understand it?
- What format will be used, symbols or type?
- Usage – Is its functionality informed by your world?
- Clarity – Does it work?
Resource/ information found on Creative Bloq
What is Typography? Learn the basic rules and terms of type!
Typography is, quite simply, the art and technique of arranging type. It’s central to the work and skills of a designer and is much more than making the words legible.
Your choice of typeface and how you make it work with your layout, grid, colour scheme, design theme and so on will make the difference between a good, bad and great design.
Good typography is partly down to creative intuition, but it’s impossible to become skilled in typography without understanding the basic rules of the craft – even if you mean to break them.
- Size – All typefaces are not created equally. Some are fat and wide; some are thin and narrow. So words set in different typefaces can take up a very different amount of space on the page. The height of each character is known as its ‘x-height’(quite simply because it’s based on the letter ‘x’). It’s generally wise to use those that share similar x-height. The most common method used to measure type is the point system, which dates back to the eighteenth century. One point is 1/72 inch. 12 points make one pica, a unit used to measure column widths. Type sizes can also be measured in inches, millimetres, or pixels.
- Leading – leading describes the vertical space between each line of type. It’s called this because strips of lead were originally used to separate line type in the days of metal type setting. For legible body text that’s comfortable to read, a general rule is that your leading value should be greater than the font size; anywhere from 1.25 to 1.5 times.
- Tracking and kerning – kerning describes that act of adjusting the space between characters to create a harmonious pairing. For example, where an uppercase ‘A’ meets an uppercase ‘V’, their diagonal strokes are usually kerned so that the top left of the ‘V’ sits above the bottom right of the ‘A’. Kerning is similar to, but not the same as ‘tracking’; this relates to the spacing of all the characters and is applied evenly.
- Measure – The term ‘measure’ describes the width of a text block.
- Hierarchy and scale – If all type was the same size, then it would be difficult to know which was the most important information on the page. In order to guide the reader, then, headings are usually large, sub-headings are smaller, and body type is smaller still. Size is not the only way to define hierarchy – it can also be achieved with colour, spacing and weight.
Aesc (phonetic: ash) – A ligature of two letters – ‘a’ and ‘e’. The asec derives from Old English, where it represented a diphthong vowel, and has successfully migrated to other alphabets including Danish and Icelandic.
Aperture – The constricted opening of a glyph, as seen in the letter ‘e’. Varying the size of the aperture has a direct effect on the legibility of a letter form and, ultimately, readability.
Apex – the point at the top of a character where the left and right strokes meet.
Arm- A horizontal stroke that does not connect to a stroke or stem at one or both ends – such as the top of the capital T.
Ascender – the part of a lower case letterform that projects above the x-height and not enough x-height can cause problems.
Baseline – the baseline is where the feet of your capital letters sit. Below this line are descenders and loops.
Bowl – The shapely, enclosed parts of letters such as ‘p’ and ‘b’.
Beak – The Beak – shaped terminal at the top of letters such as ‘a’, ‘c’, ‘f’ and ‘r’.
Bicameral (as opposed to unicameral) – Bicameral refers to alphabets that have upper and lower case letterforms, such as Roman and Cyrillic – as opposed to the likes of Hebrew and Arabic.
Bracket – A wedge – like shape that joins a Serif to the stem of a font in some typefaces.
Cap Height – the height of a capital letter above the baseline.
Copy fitting – the job of adjusting point size and letter spacing in a bid to make text occupy its allotted space in a harmonious fashion.
Counter – the enclosed – or partially enclosed – portion of letterforms, such as ‘c’, the lower part of ‘e’ and ‘g’; easy to get mixed up with the bowl.
Crossbar – The crossbar connects two strokes that cut through the stem of letterforms such as ‘t’.
Serif – a flare or, terminating flourish at the end of a letterform’s strokes, believed to originate from Roman tendency to paint letters onto marble before chiselling them out.
Sans Serif – a category of typefaces that do not use Serifs, small lines at the ends of characters.
Typeface – a particular design of type.
What is Writing?
Writing is a method of representing language in visual or tactile form. Writing systems use sets of symbols to represent the sounds of speech, and may also have symbols for such things as punctuation and numerals.
- It must have communication as its purpose
- It must consist of artificial graphic marks on a durable or electronic surface;
- It must use marks that relate conventionally to articulate speech (the systematic or electronic programming in such a way that communication is achieved.
Languages of the word:
Avatar – http://www.learnnavi.org
J R R Tolkien
Stems – vertical and horizontal strokes can have a slight ductus, a subtle reduction of weight towards the middle of the stroke. This is to make the stroke a bit sharper, and reduce some of the weight.
Parameters – 1. A numerical or other measurable factor forming one of a set that defines a system or sets the conditions of its operations. 2. A limit or boundary which defines the scope of a particular process or activity.
Erik Spiekermann is a German typographer and designer. He is a Professor at the University of the Arts Bremen. Spiekermann studied art history at Berlin’s Free University, funding himself by running a letter press in the basement of his house.
These were are main source of inspiration for the magazine design; we wanted something that was colourful, simple and was eye-catching/appealing to our target audience. We wanted the cover for the magazine to sell to the audience, a action pack and cool comic book; it had to be something they would want, something that would be cool. We wanted it to be interesting visually; we want to design it for readers, who would not want to put it down.
Firstly I began sketching down some ideas for the font I wanted to create for the title/logo. I wanted a strong and bold look, that came across as both warning and Eco friendly. The circle boarder takes inspiration from the Eco friendly logo. Therefore, green was to be my dominant colour for the boarder as the colour green, suggest the sign of good and has a sense of justice about it; it is the kind of colour that best suits within a hero genre, because of it good fib/meaning.
I then researched some font designs that I thought were perfect examples for what I wanted to achieve for the logo’s font design. I really liked a font I found on Dafont; it was called Warrior Nation, it was as though it was faded for the design, (hence the name of the font); I decided that was the font I wanted, however, the selection of the font had the idea I wanted for a font design, but, they were not quite to the standard I wanted. I downloaded the font, and began designing my version of it. I layered the fonts options on top of one another, and change the original colour display, and rearranged the angle to fit the circle boarder; the way I had envisioned as I was working with the design.
The Team also asked me to create the fonts for the names of the characters for the characters’ card designs.
This was the finial design for the title/logo of our product, I presented this to my team members who liked the idea and choice of font. For our card product we need, I thought, a subtitle that would separate it from our animation inspired tv show the Eco Warriors; I wanted a word that would relate to Eco friendly, so, I researched the thesaurus of the word on Google and found; Biohazard, this was a perfect.
This was the cover design for the magazine article; I wanted something that would catch children’s eye, and be interestingly appealing visually.
Page Layout Designs
Above are some page layout designs for the magazine, I attempted many different stages for the layout of the page design; I knew in my head and from the references of magazines found: what I wanted to create/achieve with this design.
It had to in my opinion have to appeal both informative and attract the attention of a reader, the final design I think was the best, because it has bright colours and to a young audience would be eye-catching and attract attention.
Product Packaging/Advertising design