Monthly Archives: September 2013


Example Video

An example video create by last years students; this our tutor showed us to give us an example of what Perception project is and what is expected.

Team Inspiration/Influence Video

David Firth was suggested by a member of my team as a basis of inspiration for our theme.




Create Elements: Poster Design Project


Creative Elements aims to introduce diverse backgrounds to a range of concepts and skills required to gain an understanding of the universal principles surrounding both interactivity and animation. The aims of this module are to introduce core themes, such as:

visualization, time-based media, audio, interactivity and divergent thinking. fundamental techniques, processes and technology through intensive workshop practice. promote innovative thinking and idea generation. encourage the creation of assets required to meet the outcomes from innovative thinking. creative environment that supports an understanding of core themes relating to interactivity and animation through reflection, group work and peer-assessment.



My Team and I, were given a task to produce a poster and graphic design, in a ratio of 4.1 – 2.1; based on the research we found within Design Discourse One and Two. The first thing we did was to read over the module’s description and discuss “What it means?”. We then began to research ideas we could incorporate into the design of the poster and graphic. This research would relate to key elements within that course module structure, and what it means to study this module.

Here are some of these images and idea processes, we had:

We began by bringing up all the key words found within the module description; and pinning them up on the window, just like we had done for the previous week’s project.

We had originally decided to produce a .gif for our poster design, but, we later found out that the site may not hold a .gif document. Above, is a storyboard idea that I created for the .gif. I took the same ideas mentioned by the team; which was an idea involving blending of images showing the key elements of Design Discourse One and Two. The Idea for this story board was simple: each image would flick to the next frame, and there would be slight indications of animation (between each one), to narrate the meaning of the key words found in Design Discourse One and Two.

One idea I suggested was to bring an illustrative approach to the piece; I produced some works I felt express this style, but once we looked over them, we decided the images were too dominant in the piece, and didn’t really present a clear view of the module’s key elements. What we then decided was to bring a narrative to the poster, that would attract the audience/viewer in a way that would trick them into looking at the whole piece, in a rotated fashion. We aimed to do this by blending images on Photoshop, in a mask layer, and to collect images of the class environment around us.

Above are some concepts I created; my inspiration for these came from one of my team members. She had produced this wonderfully textured looking image that was blended in a mask layer. Its texture was the typography and a brush swish effect, (subtly disguised behind) which she had drawn out over the top of the images in mask layer; and therefore, it appeared/felt like a projector was projecting the images. The words also had the colours from the images behind, coming through. (Scroll down and you will see this image below.)

Above are some more concepts that I feel have certain aspects to an Illustrative approach. I wanted to experiment with typography, and when I brought these ideas to the team we decided that the typography was over crowding the main focus point of the poster, and that the illustrative style could be used through photography that would describe the modules’ overall themes.

Our aim from that point on, was to narrow those concepts down to four finalized designs, for the poster.



These were some of the team’s final poster designs for this project. They provided a good basis for how we wanted to present our finalized ideas. They were good designs, and had a related quality to design that we were trying to achieve; however we decided not to use them, because the images had nothing that related to the course module or said anything that related to it. Though in our feed back, from our tutor, we were shocked to realize that he preferred these earlier ideas. So, our aim now is to refine this idea, but, this time to use a single image that represents the course module. Looking back, we realized that simplicity works best; when in doubt, think of the least expected.


These were some later entries of the poster designs; they were really simple and brilliantly illustrated the course structure, in great detail.




These were the team’s finalized poster designs that we presented to the class. The problem with these posters was, that they weren’t simple enough. Our tutor loves simplistic ideas, because they work the best, when creating a poster or any other type of design. Design is always based around simplistic ideas, because they work.

These were the finalized graphics that we presented, they work in a rotated fashion; it is a simple trick that one of our team members guested and we liked, so went for it. It works really well; the idea is that the images are placed in a way that directs the viewer’s eye to look at the whole image. That is pure genius; it really does work well.

The team worked on other variations of that same idea of directing the viewer’s eye; we played about with the positioning of the image within the graphic. Then one other team member started positioning the images slanted, something the rest of us hadn’t thought about; so, we started taking that spark of an idea into consideration. There is something appealing about when we designed the images to be slanted that just stuck to the end product.

This is a presentation/ example of what the graphic will look like on the course website.

The Plausible Impossible

Cartoon physics is a jocular system of laws of physics that supersedes the normal laws, used in animation for humorous effect. Normal physical laws are referential (i.e., objective, invariant), but cartoon physics are preferential (i.e., subjective, varying).

Many of the most famous American animated films, particularly those from Warner Bros. and MGM studios, unconsciously developed a relatively consistent set of such “laws” that have become regularly applied in comic animation. In a common cartoon scenario, for example, when a cartoon character runs off a cliff, gravity has no effect until the character notices and reacts.

In words attributed to Art Babbitt, an animator with the Walt Disney Studios: “Animation follows the laws of physics — unless it is funnier otherwise.”

Gifs. Gallery

Video Reference


The Twelve Principles of Animation

The Fundamental Principles of Animation

  1. Squash and Stretch
  2. Anticipation
  3. Staging
  4. Straight Ahead Action and Pose to Pose
  5. Follow Through and Overlapping Action
  6. Slow In and Slow Out
  7. Arcs
  8. Secondary Action
  9. Timing
  10. Exaggeration
  11. Solid Drawing
  12. Appeal

– Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnson, The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation, Hyperion ed., USA.

Squash and stretch

Illustration of the “squash and stretch”-principle:
Example A shows a ball bouncing with a rigid, non-dynamic movement. In example B the ball is “squashed” at impact, and “stretched” during fall and rebound. The movement also accelerates during the fall, and slows down towards the apex (see “slow in and slow out”).

Animated sequence of a race horse galloping. Photos taken by Eadweard Muybridge. The horse’s body demonstrates squash and stretch in natural musculature.

The most important principle is “squash and stretch“, the purpose of which is to give a sense of weight and flexibility to drawn objects. It can be applied to simple objects, like a bouncing ball, or more complex constructions, like the musculature of a human face. Taken to an extreme point, a figure stretched or squashed to an exaggerated degree can have a comical effect. In realistic animation, however, the most important aspect of this principle is the fact that an object’s volume does not change when squashed or stretched. If the length of a ball is stretched vertically, its width (in three dimensions, also its depth) needs to contract correspondingly horizontally.


Anticipation is used to prepare the audience for an action, and to make the action appear more realistic. A dancer jumping off the floor has to bend his knees first; a golfer making a swing has to swing the club back first. The technique can also be used for less physical actions, such as a character looking off-screen to anticipate someone’s arrival, or attention focusing on an object that a character is about to pick up.

Anticipation: A baseball player making a pitch prepares for the action by moving his arm back.

For special effect, anticipation can also be omitted in cases where it is expected. The resulting sense of anticlimax will produce a feeling of surprise in the viewer, and can often add comedy to a scene. This is often referred to as a ‘surprise gag’.


This principle is akin to staging as it is known in theatre and film. Its purpose is to direct the audience’s attention, and make it clear what is of greatest importance in a scene; Johnston and Thomas defined it as “the presentation of any idea so that it is completely and unmistakably clear”, whether that idea is an action, a personality, an expression or a mood. This can be done by various means, such as the placement of a character in the frame, the use of light and shadow, and the angle and position of the camera. The essence of this principle is keeping focus on what is relevant, and avoiding unnecessary detail.

Straight ahead action and pose to pose

These are two different approaches to the actual drawing process. “Straight ahead action” means drawing out a scene frame by frame from beginning to end, while “pose to pose” involves starting with drawing a few key frames, and then filling in the intervals later. “Straight ahead action” creates a more fluid, dynamic illusion of movement, and is better for producing realistic action sequences. On the other hand, it is hard to maintain proportions, and to create exact, convincing poses along the way. “Pose to pose” works better for dramatic or emotional scenes, where composition and relation to the surroundings are of greater importance. A combination of the two techniques is often used.

Computer animation removes the problems of proportion related to “straight ahead action” drawing; however, “pose to pose” is still used for computer animation, because of the advantages it brings in composition. The use of computers facilitates this method, as computers can fill in the missing sequences in between poses automatically. It is, however, still important to oversee this process and apply the other principles discussed.

Follow through and overlapping action

Follow through and overlapping action is a general heading for two closely related techniques which help to render movement more realistically, and help to give the impression that characters follow the laws of physics. “Follow through” means that separate parts of a body will continue moving after the character has stopped. “Overlapping action” is the tendency for parts of the body to move at different rates (an arm will move on different timing of the head and so on). A third related technique is “drag”, where a character starts to move and parts of him take a few frames to catch up. These parts can be inanimate objects like clothing or the antenna on a car, or parts of the body, such as arms or hair. On the human body, the torso is the core, with arms, legs, head and hair appendices that normally follow the torso’s movement. Body parts with much tissue, such as large stomachs and breasts, or the loose skin on a dog, are more prone to independent movement than bonier body parts. Again, exaggerated use of the technique can produce a comical effect, while more realistic animation must time the actions exactly, to produce a convincing result.

Thomas and Johnston also developed the principle of the “moving hold”. A character not in movement can be rendered absolutely still; this is often done, particularly to draw attention to the main action. According to Thomas and Johnston, however, this gave a dull and lifeless result, and should be avoided. Even characters sitting still can display some sort of movement, such as the torso moving in and out with breathing.

Slow in and slow out

The movement of the human body, and most other objects, needs time to accelerate and slow down. For this reason, animation looks more realistic if it has more drawings near the beginning and end of an action, emphasizing the extreme poses, and fewer in the middle. This principle goes for characters moving between two extreme poses, such as sitting down and standing up, but also for inanimate, moving objects, like the bouncing ball in the above illustration.


Most natural action tends to follow an arched trajectory, and animation should adhere to this principle by following implied “arcs” for greater realism. This can apply to a limb moving by rotating a joint, or a thrown object moving along a parabolic trajectory. The exception is mechanical movement, which typically moves in straight lines.

As an object’s speed or momentum increases, arcs tend to flatten out in moving ahead and broaden in turns. In baseball, a fastball would tend to move in a straighter line than other pitches; while a figure skater moving at top speed would be unable to turn as sharply as a slower skater, and would need to cover more ground to complete the turn.

An object in motion that moves out of its natural arc for no apparent reason will appear erratic rather than fluid. Therefore when animating (for example) a pointing finger, the animator should be certain that in all drawings in between the two extreme poses, the fingertip follows a logical arc from one extreme to the next. Traditional animators tend to draw the arc in lightly on the paper for reference, to be erased later.

Follow through/Overlapping Action: as the horse runs, its mane and tailfollow the movement of the body.

Secondary action

Adding secondary actions to the main action gives a scene more life, and can help to support the main action. A person walking can simultaneously swing his arms or keep them in his pockets, he can speak or whistle, or he can express emotions through facial expressions. The important thing about secondary actions is that they emphasize, rather than take attention away from, the main action. If the latter is the case, those actions are better left out. In the case of facial expressions, during a dramatic movement these will often go unnoticed. In these cases it is better to include them at the beginning and the end of the movement, rather than during.


Timing refers to the number of drawings or frames for a given action, which translates to the speed of the action on film. On a purely physical level, correct timing makes objects appear to obey the laws of physics; for instance, an object’s weight determines how it reacts to an impetus, like a push. Timing is critical for establishing a character’s mood, emotion, and reaction. It can also be a device to communicate aspects of a character’s personality.


Exaggeration is an effect especially useful for animation, as perfect imitation of reality can look static and dull in cartoons. The level of exaggeration depends on whether one seeks realism or a particular style, like a caricature or the style of an artist. The classical definition of exaggeration, employed by Disney, was to remain true to reality, just presenting it in a wilder, more extreme form. Other forms of exaggeration can involve the supernatural or surreal, alterations in the physical features of a character, or elements in the storyline itself. It is important to employ a certain level of restraint when using exaggeration; if a scene contains several elements, there should be a balance in how those elements are exaggerated in relation to each other, to avoid confusing or overawing the viewer.

Solid drawing

The principle of solid drawing means taking into account forms in three-dimensional space, giving them volume and weight.[14] The animator needs to be a skilled draughtsman and has to understand the basics of three-dimensional shapes, anatomy, weight, balance, light and shadow, etc.[34] For the classical animator, this involved taking art classes and doing sketches from life.[35] One thing in particular that Johnston and Thomas warned against was creating “twins”: characters whose left and right sides mirrored each other, and looked lifeless.[36] Modern-day computer animators draw less because of the facilities computers give them, yet their work benefits greatly from a basic understanding of animation principles, and their additions to basic computer animation.[35]


Appeal in a cartoon character corresponds to what would be called charisma in an actor. A character who is appealing is not necessarily sympathetic – villains or monsters can also be appealing – the important thing is that the viewer feels the character is real and interesting. There are several tricks for making a character connect better with the audience; for likable characters a symmetrical or particularly baby-like face tends to be effective. A complicated or hard to read face will lack appeal, it may more accurately be described as ‘captivation’ in the composition of the pose, or the character design.

Gifs. Gallery

Book Reference


Video Reference

Website References

Alchemy of Animation

What is Animation?

  1. the state of being full of life or vigour; liveliness. “they started talking with animation”
  2. the technique of photographing successive drawings or positions of puppets or models to create an illusion of movement when the film is shown as a sequence. “a combination of live action with 3-D animation”


“When we consider a new project, we really study it… not just the surface idea, but everything about it.”
“Animation can explain whatever the mind of man can conceive.”

Video Reference